Sunday, July 3, 2016

Being Gorakhpuriya

Sunday, June 19, 2016

CLAT Syllabus


CLAT Syllabus 2016 – Common Law Admission Test

CLAT syllabus 2016 for Common Law Admission Test (CLAT) 2016 includes English, GK, Current Affairs, Mathematics, Legal Aptitude, Logical Reasoning. GK and current affairs syllabus constitutes of 50 marks each. English including comprehension, logical reasoning are of 40 marks each. Mathematics questions are of 20 marks. Overall, the CLAT exam paper is of 200 marks. CLAT 2016 Syllabus given here is for the information of all law aspirants who will be appearing in the upcoming entrance exam.

CLAT Syllabus 2016 – Common Law Admission Test

NLUs (CLAT organizing body) does not give a topic wise CLAT syllabus. On the basis of CLAT papers analysis, the following CLAT Syllabus 2016 is compiled for the reference of students. The syllabus is not final or binding. There is no fixed syllabus for Common Law Admission Test. The broad areas of the exam and topics from which questions are generally asked are explained below.
CLAT Syllabus for LLB is given in detail. The exam being divided into five major sections, CLAT Syllabus is given accordingly.

English including comprehension – 40 marks.

The official CLAT website says
The English section will test the candidates’ proficiency in English based on comprehension passages and grammar. In the comprehension section, candidates will be questioned on their understanding of the passage and its central theme, meanings of words used therein etc. The grammar section requires correction of incorrect grammatical sentences, filling of blanks in sentences with appropriate words, etc.
The CLAT syllabus for english includes vocabulary, proficiency, usage errors, comprehension.
English Vocabulary – synonyms, antonyms, analogies.
English proficiency – idioms and phrases, fill in the blanks, one word substitution, cloze tests, sentence improvement, rearrangement of sentences in paragraph, jumbled sentences.
English usage errors – spot the error and correct the sentence, spelling mistakes, use the correct word.
English comprehension – paragraph is given. Questions are asked from that paragraph. Candidate needs to understand what the para says and answer questions accordingly.
It is advised that CLAT aspirants go through past year papers. Solving CLAT papers will help you prepare better for the exam and know the CLAT Syllabus.

General knowledge and current affairs – 50 marks.

According to the official CLAT website, GK and current affairs syllabus for CLAT is as follows.
As far as general knowledge is concerned, the candidates will be tested on their general awareness including static general knowledge. Questions on current affairs will test candidates on their knowledge of current affairs.
To cover the GK syllabus for CLAT 2016, we suggest you refer to books like Manorama yearbook and Pratiyogita darpan. Focus is on static GK as well as latest happenings. Read the newspaper diligently and know the important news of the past year at least.
Events of national as well as international importance must be known to you. Also look out for news specific to science, technology, legal affairs, sports, people and places.

Elementary mathematics (Numerical ability) – 20 marks. says “This section will test candidate’s knowledge on elementary mathematics, i.e. maths taught up to Class X.”
Students who have a strong grasp of fundamentals of mathematics will find this section quite scoring. As long as you avoid silly calculation mistakes, concepts related to CLAT math section are easy. Make sure you cover these topics in mathematics:
  • Number system
  • Roots
  • Decimals and fractions
  • Surds and indices
  • Average
  • HCF and LCM
  • Approximation
  • Ration and proportion
  • Logarithm
  • Profit and loss
  • Discounts
  • Interest calculation
  • Areas and volumes

Legal aptitude – 50 marks.

Study of law, research aptitude and problem solving ability. Legal propositions will be described in the paper on which questions will be framed. Also a set of facts to which the said proposition has to be applied. Some propositions may not be “true” in the real sense (e.g. the legal proposition may be that any person who speaks in a movie hall and disturbs others that are watching the movie will be banned from entering any movie theatre across India for one year). Candidates will have to assume the “truth” of these propositions and answer the questions accordingly.
Basically, this section will test the candidate’s understanding of how legal propositions work.
Last year, the section was as follows:
This section consisted of fifty (50) questions. Each question consists of legal propositions/principles (referred to as “principle”) and facts. These principles have to be applied to the given facts to arrive at the most reasonable conclusion. Such principles may or may not be true in the real sense, yet you have to conclusively assume them to be true for the purposes of this section. In other words, in answering the following questions, you must not rely on any principles except the principles that are given herein below for every question. Further, you must not assume any facts other than those stated in the question. The objective of this section is to test your interest towards study of law, research aptitude and problem solving ability even if the „most reasonable conclusion ‟ arrived at may be unacceptable for any other reason. It is not the object of this section to test your knowledge of law.
You can refer to Legal Awareness and Legal Reasoning : For the CLAT and LL.B. Entrance Examinations (English) 4th Edition to prepare for CLAT syllabus for legal aptitude.

Logical reasoning – 40 marks.

Questions to logical links, identify patterns, rectify illogical arguments will be in this section. This particular section will test your ability to solve a wide variety of logical reasoning questions such as syllogisms, logical sequences, analogies. CLAT LLB Syllabus includes problem solving in logical reasoning. You can refer to A Modern Approach To Logical Reasoning by RS Aggarwal.
Official Website of CLAT Exam:
If you have any queries regarding CLAT syllabus, please ask in comments below.


CLAT Syllabus

Candidates who are looking for CLAT Syllabus 2016 they get the full syllabus through this page.
Here in this page we are providing full syllabus and exam pattern in this page. For latest information they need to check the page regularly.  Candidates get the full syllabus in pdf format they need to visit the official website of CLAT.

Common Law Admission Test is an all India entrance examination conducted on rotation by the sixteen National Law Universities (NLUs) for admission to their undergraduate (UG) and post graduate (PG) programmes, i.e., BA LL.B & LL.M, respectively. Ram Manohar Lohia National Law University has proposed to conduct CLAT exam in an online mode.

To get more details they need to keep focus this page of

CLAT Syllabus

For UG Programmes

English Comprehension
Comprehension Passages
Fill In the Blanks
Incorrect Sentences
Spotting Error etc.

GK and Current affairs
Latest News and Events on following categories
Inventions Etc.

Elementary Maths
Test the Proficiency of students up to Xth class Maths:
Profit and Loss
Decimal Fraction
S.I & C.I
Problems on Ages
HCF & LCM etc
Legal Aptitude
Legal Prepositions

Logical reasoning
Visual Reasoning

Monday, February 1, 2016

Convert String to Integer in IBM BPM

Convert String to Integer in IBM BPM
-- OR --
IBM BPM string to integer
-- OR --
IBM BPM convert string to integer


tw.local.pIntegerVariable = Number(tw.local.pStringVariable);

  where tw.local.pStringVariable is String Type and tw.local.pIntegerVariable is Integer Type

Friday, September 14, 2012

Dot Net Interview Questions

Dear Readers,

I am sharing the some interview questions, that is being asked in many companies. I hope it will be very helpful for all of you.

  1. Cohesion and Coupling
  2. Virtual funcation table in OOPs

  1. array.sort
  2. can we have property and indexer in an interface
  3. can we create indexer for a class which have property
  4. copy and clone of array and and data table and dataset
  5. Difference between static class and singlton class
  6. difference between an abstract method and virtual method
  7. Collections in .Net
  8. difference between Copy and Clone Method
  9. Difference between Dispose and Finalize
  10. Difference Between Int32
  11. Difference Between Readonly and Constant
  12. Difference between struct and Class
  13. Difference between type constructor and instance constructor
  14. Difference between out and ref in c#
  15. Difference between CLS and CTS
  16. Difference between Metadata and Menifest
  17. What is Serialization?
  18. How Garbage Collector works?
  19. How GC remove stack memory?
  20. What is Generics?
  21. Why doesnt C# support multiple inheritance

  1. How to get value of HTML Control at server side.
  2. Form authentication
  3. how to call Web Service from javascript or jquery
  4. custom paging in grid view
  5. autoeventwireup in
  6. session.abondon and session.end
  7. difference between application variable and static variable
  8. 2 page in registration page, how to get page 1 values:- Hint:- Page.PreviousPage Property
  9. In a aspx page 10 text box has required field validate, having two button. on click of button1 call validate of only 5 text box and same for other button.
  10. using keyword.
  11. server variable in
  12. how to call user control from another user contorl.
  13. how to call a javascript function form aspx.cs file
  14. how to call a cs function for aspx page
  15. how to call a web service from javascript
  16. exception handling in application level?? Answer Hint:- In global.asx file.
  17. How do u handle Exceptions in  your application.
  18. Difference between custome control and user control.
  19. Difference between application variable and cache object
  20. Difference between application variable and static variable
  21. Difference between Session.Abandon() and Session.Clear() in ASP.Net
  22. Why custome control is in DLL form.
  23. Tell me something HttpPipeline/Request Life cycle.
  24. Give name of any http module
  25. Give name of any http handler
  26. Difference between HTTP Module and HTTP Handler
  27. Cookieless Session in ASP

SQL Server
  1. difference between nvarchar, varchar, char in sql
  2. difeerence between cast and convert in sql
  3. how to pass a collection in stored procedure
  4. Highest Salary
  5. Get sum of row in sql
  6. wothout using distinct keyword.
  7. you are having 2 tables:- you have table one records (1,2,3,4) in table2 (1,2):-write the query for both table and get only record which in not available in table2 dont use sub query. ANswer:- use left outer join and where id of table1 is not equal to table2

  1. difference between web service and wcf.
  2. security in wcf
  3. Difference between BasicHttpBinding and WsHttpBinding
  4. If you have a WCF Service and there is 10 method inside that. Suppose there are three different client accessing that service. How will you allow client 1 to have access only 2 methods, client 2 can access only 5 methods and client 3 can access all 10 methods. How will you achieve that.

_event target
_event argument

Friday, June 29, 2012

Save SQL Query Results With Column Names

Save SQL Query Results With Column Names


It can be done by going to Tools - Options - Query Results - Sql Server - Results to Grid - Include column headers when copying or saving results. 

Click on Options....

 Click on Ok...

 Run your query and then Right click on Result -> then click on “Save Result As…”


Now, you can save the output in an excel file with Column name.

Tuesday, May 8, 2012

DataTypes in C#.NET

 DataTypes in C#.NET:-
All the data types in .net are available within the namespace System and are as follows.

 Category  Class/Structre Name Data Type in C#.NET  NO. of Bytes   Range
 Integer  System.Byte  Byte  1(Unsigned)  0 to 255
   System.SByte  Sbyte  1(Signed)  -128 to 127
   System.Int16  Short  2(Signed)  -32,768 to 32,767
   System.Uint16  Ushort  2(Unsigned)  0 to 65,535
   System.Int32  Int  4(Signed)  -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647
   System.Uint32  Uint  4(Unsigned)  0 to 4,294,967,295
   System.Int64  Long  8(Signed)  -9,223,372,036,854,775,808 to 9,223,372,036,854,775,807
   System.Uint64  Ulong  8(Unsigned)  0 to 18,446,744,073,709,551,615
   Single  Float  4  ±1.5e−45 to ±3.4e38 
(Precision:7 digits)
   Double  Double  8  ±5.0e−324 to ±1.7e308
(Precision:15-16 digits)
   Decimal  Decimal  16  (-7.9 x 1028 to 7.9 x 1028) / (100 to 28)
(Precision:28-29 digits)
   Char  Char  2  
   String  String  size varies  
   DateTime  DateTime  8  
   Boolean  Bool  1  
   Object  Object  size varies  Can store any type of value

Note: Of all the datatypes, string and object are reference types while all other are value types.

Friday, May 4, 2012

Assembly in .Net

An assembly is a fundamental unit of any .NET application. It contains the code that is executed by CLR (common language runtime). I would like to limit the details to what is required to create and use an assembly. For more information about all nitty gritties of an assembly, please refer to MSDN documentation.
However, it is important to know a few details about assemblies before we delve into creating and using it.
  • An assembly contains name, version, types (classes and others) created in it and details about other assemblies it references.
  • An assembly may be either an executable file - .EXE or a dynamic link library - .DLL
The following is the content of an assembly. Each assembly contains first three parts. Fourth part may not be present in all assemblies. It is used primarily for localization - using resources according to the country or region.
  • Assembly Metadata or Manifest
  • Type Metadata
  • MSIL Code
  • Resources
Assembly Metadata or Manifest
This contains information about the assembly. Remember, assemblies in .NET are self-describing. They contain all the information that .NET needs to use them. Assembly metadata contains the following details of an assembly:
  • Assembly name
  • Version number of the assembly, which has four numbers in the format
  • Culture - language assembly supports
  • Strong name - required only for global assemblies
  • List of files in the assembly. An assembly can be made up of multiple files
  • Type reference information - informs which type is in which file of the assembly
  • Information about referenced assemblies - Contains list of other assemblies referenced by this assembly. For each assembly referenced we have assembly name, version, culture and public key (if assembly is a global assembly)
Type metadata
This section of an assembly contains information about all classes, structure etc. created in the assembly.
MSIL code of the assembly is placed in third part of the assembly. This MSIL is converted to native code by CLR at runtime.
This section contains messages and pictures used by assembly.
How to create an assembly in C#
The following are the steps to create a private assembly (by default all assemblies are private) using Visual C# 2005 Express Edition.
  1. Select File->New Project
  2. From Templates, select Class Library
  3. Enter name CounterLibrary
  4. A class library is created using a single class Class1
  5. Rename class to Counter and add the following code.
6.  namespace CounterLibrary
7.  {
8.      public class Counter
9.      {
10.        protected int v = 0;
11.        public Counter(int v)
12.        {
13.            this.v = v;
14.        }
15.        public int Value
16.        {
17.            get
18.            {
19.                return v;
20.            }
21.        }
22.    }
  1. Save project using File->Save All. When prompted to enter location for project, select the folder where you want to save your project. I use c:\csharp. Do not select checkbox for Create directory for solution
  2. Build (not run) the project using Build->Build Solution
After the above process, we get CounterLibrary.dll assembly placed in c:\csharp\counterlibrary\bin\release directory.
The next step is to use this assembly in a console application. As a matter of fact, once a source program is converted to MSIL, it can be used anywhere in .NET, irrespective of language and type of application.
Using a private assembly in a console application developed in C#
Now, let us use the class library created in C# in a console application. Though I am using a console application in C#, you can use any language supported by .NET. 
  1. Start Visual C# 2005 Express Edition
  2. Create a new console application using File -> New Project
  3. From template select Console Application as type of project
  4. Give name UseCounter for application.
    A new application is created with a single class with Main() method.
  5. Go to Solution Explorer and select project
  6. Right click on it and select Add References from the context menu.
  7. From dialog box, select Browse tab and select c:\csharp\counterlibrary\bin\release\counterlibrary.dll
  8. Solution explorer displays counterlibrary as one of the references under references node in solution explorer
  9. Add the following code in Main() method of Program.cs
10.using System;
11.namespace UseCounter
13.    class Program
14.    {
15.        static void Main(string[] args)
16.        {
17.            counterlibrary.Counter c = new counterlibrary.Counter(100);
18.            c.Inc();
19.            Console.WriteLine(c.Value);
20.        }
21.    }
As you do the above, you can notice that a copy of counterlibrary.dll is copied into BIN directory of UseCounter application. This is the case with any private library. Whenever an application makes a reference to it, a copy of private assembly is copied into it's bin directory.

If you do not see .DLL file that is copied to BIN directory of console application (UseCounter), close the application and reopen it.

Making a private assembly a global assembly
A global assembly is a public assembly that is shared by multiple applications. Unlike private assembly, a global assembly is not copied to bin directory of each application that references it. Global assembly instead is placed in GAC (Global Assembly Cache) and it can be referenced anywhere within the system. So only one copy is stored, but many applications can use that single copy.
In order to convert a private assembly to global assembly, we have to take the following steps.
  • Create a strong name
  • Associate strong name with assembly
  • Place assembly in GAC
Creating a strong name
Any assembly that is to be placed in GAC, must have a strong name. Strong name is a combination of public key and private key. The relationship between public and private keys are such, given one you cannot get the other, but any data that is encrypted with private key can be decrypted only with the corresponding public key.
Take the following steps to invoke SN (Strong Name) tool to create strong name.
  1. Go to command prompt using Microsoft .NET Framework SDK v2.0 -> SDK Command prompt
  2. Go to c:\csharp\counterlibrary folder and enter the following command.
3.  sn -k srikanth.key
  1. The above command writes private and public key pair into srikanth.key file.
Associate strong name with assembly
Once private and public keys are generated using SN tool, use the following procedure to sign counterlibrary with the key file.
  1. Open counterlibrary project.
  2. Select project properties using Project -> counterlibrary properties
  3. Select Signing tab in project properties window
  4. Check Sign the assembly check box
  5. Select srikanth.key file using Choose a strong name key file combo box
  6. Close properties window
  7. Build the solution again using Build->Build Solution
Now, counterlibrary.dll is associated with a public key and also digitally signed with private key. This ensures no one can modify this assembly as any change to assembly should re-sign the assembly with private key of the user who created it first. This protects the assembly from getting tampered with by others. A global assembly needs this projection as it is placed in common place.
You can verify whether the assembly is associated with public key using ILDASM (IL Disassembler) program provided by .NET Framework.
  • Start ILDASM using .NET Framework SDK v2.0->Tools->MSIL Disassembler
  • Select counterlibrary.dll using File->Open
  • Once assembly is opened, double click on Manifest section of the assembly to see the public key associated with the assembly.
Place assembly in GAC
In order to make an assembly a global assembly, the assembly must be associated with a strong name and then placed in Global Assembly Cache (GAC).
GAC is a folder with name Assembly in windows folder of your system. So, place counterlibrary.dll in GAC using GACUTIL tool as follows.
c:\csharp\counterlibrary\bin\Release>gacutil -i counterlibrary.dll
After you install global assembly into GAC, you can see counterlibrary.dll in windows/assembly folder.
Once, you place an assembly in GAC, any reference to the assembly will not create a copy of the assembly in BIN directory of the application. Instead all application that reference the assembly use the same copy that is placed in GAC.